The Paradiplomacy of Global Cities
When you think of cities that have made a name for themselves in international affairs, which ones come to mind?
Paris has gained importance as a result of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, while Mayor Eric Garcetti has hosted officials from around the world and traveled on trade missions to cities like Auckland, New Zealand to make Los Angeles a truly global city.
In a recent discussion of global cities, Richard Stren and Abigail Friendly compare and contrast the city diplomacy of Toronto, Canada and São Paulo, Brazil. Looking at the paradiplomacy of the two cities, Stren and Friendly discovered three major trends:
- The practice of paradiplomacy is significant in both the global North and South.
- Cities are gaining importance in international economic and political systems.
- Local politics in global cities like Toronto and São Paolo are increasingly influenced by the city's international ties.
The full article, "Toronto and São Paulo: Cities and International Diplomacy," is published by Urban Affairs Review and available here.