historical pd

Both diplomacy and international relations are European constructs, products of the specific contingencies of European history. They dominate global governance not because they are universal concepts, but because of the domination firstly of European powers and then the U.S. As U.S. hegemony declines and a more genuinely multipolar world system emerges, will alternative approaches to diplomacy and global governance also emerge?

Modern paper money isn't made of paper - it's made of cotton fibres or plastic. And the Chinese money that so fascinated Marco Polo wasn't quite paper either. It was made from a black sheet derived from the bark of mulberry trees, signed by multiple officials and, with a seal smothered in bright red vermillion, authenticated by the Chinese emperor Kublai Khan himself.

Shaun Riordan asks, "As U.S. hegemony declines and a more genuinely multipolar world system emerges, will alternative approaches to diplomacy and global governance also emerge?"

Since the United States' inception, the government has used public diplomacy to engage with other countries.

Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union shaped the historical reality of the modern world. Given the current tensions between the United States and Russia, it is worth keeping in mind the past successes of U.S. cultural diplomacy. During the Cold War, one such success involved choreographer George Balanchine.

Mariami Khatiashvili discusses the impact of one man's cultural bridge between the United States and Georgia.

Nepalese kings organized massive hunts to get on the good side of the British – hunts that may have been terrible for conservation, but worked diplomatic magic. [...] ‘Hunting diplomacy’ lent the Ranas much-needed social capital with the British elite, and an invite from the Ranas of Nepal became a much-coveted affair for the colonists themselves.

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