Government Reports

Epstein, Susan. U.S. Public Diplomacy: Background and the 9/11 Commission Recommendations. Congressional Research Service; 2005.

Ford, Jess T. Broadcasting to Cuba: Actions are Needed to Improve Strategy and Operations. U.S. Government Accountability Office; 2009.

Ford, Jess T. U.S. International Broadcasting: Challenges Facing the Broadcasting Board of Governors. U.S. Government Accountability Office; 2004.

Ford, Jess T. U.S. International Broadcasting: Management of Middle East Broadcasting Services Could Be Improved. U.S. Government Accountability Office; 2006.

Ford, Jess T. & Luda L. Lawrence U.S. International Broadcasting: Strategic Planning and Performance Management System Could Be Improved. U.S. Government Accountability Office; 2000.

Kelley, Joseph E. U.S. International Broadcasting: Downsizing and Relocating Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. U.S. Government Accountability Office; 1995.

Lugar, Dick. U.S. International Broadcasting: Is Anybody Listening?- Keeping the U.S. Connected. U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; 2010.

Meehan, Michael. BBG: Consider the Changing Landscape. Radio World; 2013.

Metzgar, Emily. (2010). Public Diplomacy, Smith-Mundt and the American Public. International Journal of Communication Los Angeles.

Welsh, J. & Daniel Fearn. Engagement: Public Diplomacy in a Globalized World. United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office; 2008.

2011 Annual Language Service Review Briefing Book.Broadcasting Board of Governors; 2011.

2010 Annual Language Service Review Briefing Book. Broadcasting Board of Governors; 2010.

ABC and SBS: Towards a Digital Future. Department of Broadband, Communications, and Digital Technology, Austrailian Government; 2008.

Inspection of the Broadcasting Board of Governors. United States Department of State and the Broadcasting Board of Governors; 2013.

Impact through Innovation and Integration BBG Strategic Plan 2012-2016. Broadcasting Board of Governors; 2011.

Perspectives on Canadian Broadcasting in New Media. Canadian Radio-Television & Telecommunications Commission; 2008.

Review of the Voice of America and the International Broadcasting Bureau. Booz, Allen, Hamilton; 2006.

US International Broadcasters to exploit social media's "potential for change". BBC Monitoring Media; 2011.

VOA Charter. Voice of America; 1976.

Think Tank Reports

A. Ross Johnson & R. Eugene Parta. A 21st Century Vision for U.S. Global Media. Wilson Center; 2012.

Cooper, Glenda. From Their Own Correspondent? New Media and the Changes in Disaster Coverage. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism; 2011.

Dale, Helle C. U.S. International Broadcasting: The Need for a New Strategic Plan. Heritage Foundation; 2010.

Foster, Robin. News Plurality in a Digital World. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism; 2012.

Geniets, Anne. The Global News Challenge: Assessing Changes in International Broadcast News Consumption in Africa and South Asia.Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism; 2010.

Lord, Kristin M, & Marc Lynch. America's Extended Hand: Assessing the Obama Administration's Global Engagement Strategy. Center for New American Security; 2010.

McMahon, Robert. The Changing Scope of U.S. International Broadcasts. Council on Foreign Relations; 2012.

Nagasvare D/O M. Krishnasamy.New Media vs Traditional Media. Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development; 2012.

Newman, Nic. Mainstream Media and the Distribution of News in the Age of Social Discovery. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism; 2011.

Newman, Nic (ed.) Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2012: Tracking the Future. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism; 2012.

Newman, Nic. The Rise of Social Media and its Impact on Mainstream Journalism: A study of how newspapers and broadcasters in the UK and US are responding to a wave of participatory social media, and a historic shift in control towards individual consumers. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism; 2009.

Nielson, Rasmus K. Ten Years that Shook the Media World: Big Questions and Big Trends in International Media Developments. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism; 2012.

O’Keeffe, Annmaree & Alex Oliver. International broadcasting & its Contribution to Public Diplomacy. Lowy Institute for International Policy; 2010.

Rotheray, Brian. Good News from a Far Country? Changes in International Broadcast News Supply in Africa and South Asia.Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism; 2010.

Tedstrom, John E. Beyond Consolidation: U.S. Government International Broadcasting in the Post-Cold War Era. Rand; 1994.

Wallin, Matthew. The Challenges of the Internet and Social Media in Public Diplomacy. American Security Project; 2013.

Understanding the Mission of U.S. International Broadcasting. McCormick Tribune Foundation; 2007.

Academic Research

Alan J. Heil, Jr. (2010). The Ever-Expanding Global Electronic Town Meeting: Challenges ahead for U.S. international broadcasting. Layalina Productions.

Broder, Jonathon. (2010). The Public Evolution of a Broadcast Revolution. CQ Weekly In Focus.

Colona,William T,.II. (2012). Social media and the advancement of America's soft power by public diplomacy. Georgetown University.

Conrad, A. (2010). The New Paradigm for American Broadcasting–Changing the Content Regulation Regimen in the Age of New Media. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology.

Ding, S. (2007). Digital Diaspora and National Image Building: A New Perspective on Chinese Diaspora Study in the Age of China's Rise. Pacific Affairs.

Elliott, Kim Andrew. (2010). America Calling: A 21st Century Model. Foreign Service Journal.

Elliott, Kim Andrew. (2010). U.S. International Broadcasting: Success Requires Independence and Consolidation.

El-Nawawy, Mohamed & Shawn Powers. (2009). Al-Jazeera English and global news networks: clash of civilizations or cross-cultural dialogue? Media, War and Conflict. 

Gillespie, Marie. (2009). Anytime, anyplace, anywhere: Digital Diasporas and the BBC World Service. Sage Publications.

Gregory, Bruce. (2005). Public Diplomacy and Strategic Communication: Cultures, Firewalls, and Imported Norms. Presented at the American Political Science Association Conference on International Communication and Conflict.

Gurevitch, Michael, Stephen Coleman & Jay G. Blumle. (2009). Political Communication−Old and New Media Relationship. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

Honley, Steven Alan (ed.) (2010). Is Anyone Listening? U.S. Government-Funded International Broadcasting. Foreign Service Journal.

Juwayeyi, Murendehle Mulheva. (2010). Establishment of the Broadcasting board of Governors (BBG) as a Firewall for United States Government-Funded Nonmilitary International Broadcasters". Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia.

Linzer, Dafna. (2008). Lost in Translation: Alhurra- America's Troubled Effort to Win Middle East Hearts and Minds. ProPublica.

Lipien, Ted. (2011). Interweaving of Public Diplomacy and U.S. International Broadcasting: A Historical Analysis. American Diplomacy Blog.

Lugar, Richard G. (2010). Keeping America Connected: Challenges for the BBG. Foreign Service Journal.

McGregor, Kirsten and Fiona Martin. (2012). Evolution or revolution? Public service broadcasters’ strategic and operational responses to technological development. Department of Media and Communications University of Sydney, Australia.

McMahon, Robert. (2009). Channeling the Cold War: U.S. Overseas Broadcasting. Foreign Service Journal.

Metzgar, Emily. (2013). Considering the “Illogical Patchwork”: The Broadcasting Board of Governors and U.S. International Broadcasting. CPD Perspectives on Public Diplomacy.

Miladi, Noureddine. (2006). Satellite TV News and the Arab Diaspora in Britain: Comparing Al-Jazeera, the BBC, and CNN Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies

Powers, Shawn. (2011). US International Broadcasting: An Untapped Resource for Domestic and Ethnic News Organizations. USC Annenberg Center on Communication Leadership & Policy.

Price, Monroe. (2003). Public Diplomacy and the Transformation of International Broadcasting. Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania.

Price, Monroe, Susan Haas, & Drew Margolin. (2008). New Technologies and international Broadcasting: Reflections on Adaptations and Transformations. Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania.

Riegert, Kristina. (2012). Pondering the Future for Foreign News on National Television. International Journal of Communication Los Angeles.


Rugh, William A. (2005). Broadcasting and American Public Diplomacy. Transnational Broadcasting Studies.

Rugh, William A. (2009). Repairing American Public Diplomacy. Arab Media & Society.

Seib, Phil. (2009). Public Diplomacy and Journalism: Parallels, Ethical Issues, and Practical Concerns. American Behavioral Scientist.

Seib, Phil. (2010). Transnational Journalism, Public Diplomacy, and Virtual States. Journalism Studies.

Smyth, Rosaleen. (2010). Mapping US Public Diplomacy in the 21st Century. Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Zöllner, Oliver. (2006). A Quest for Dialogue in International Broadcasting: Germany’s Public Diplomacy Targeting Arab Audiences. Global Media and Communication.


Gillespie, Marie & Alban Webb. (2012). Diasporas and Diplomacy: Cosmopolitan contact zones at the BBC World Service (1932-2012). Routledge.

Heil, Alan L. Jr.(2008). Local Voices/Global Perspectives: Challenges Ahead for U.S. International Media. The Public Diplomacy Council. 

Seib, Phil. (2012). Al Jazeera English: Global News in a Changing World. Palgrave Macmillan

Seib, Phil. (2008). The Al Jazeera Effect: How the New Global Media Are Reshaping World Politics. Potomac Books Inc.

Tuch, Hans N. (2012). Communicating with the World: U. S. Public Diplomacy Overseas. Institute for the Study of Diplomacy.

Zaharna, R.S. (2008). Battles to Bridges: U.S. Strategic Communication and Public Diplomacy After 9/11. Palgrave Macmillan

Alternative Media

(2013). Blog: The use of Social Media in Public Diplomacy: Scanning e-diplomacy by Embassies in Washington DC. Take Five Blog.
(2013). Blog: Alhurra marks ninth anniversary with plunge into mobile apps. Center on Communication, Leadership & Policy.

(2013). Video: World Radio Day 2013 - Message from UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. United Nations.

(2013). Article: Static at Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Washington Post.

(2013). Article: Bringing the Presidential Inauguration to the World. BBG.

(2013). Article: Passage of New Law Enhances Our Journalists’ Reach, Improves the Agency’s Use of Resources, Increases Transparency, BBG says. BBG.

(2013). Article: BBG Expanding its Services for War-Torn Mali. BBG.

(2013). Article: VOA Show ZirZameen Explores Art and Activism. BBG.

(2012). Article: Social media and the future of international broadcasting . Premium Times.

(2012). Video: U.S. International Broadcasting Joins The Digital Age. AOL Government.

(2012). Video: A Proposal for Revitalizing International Broadcasting in the Information Age. The IPDGC Blog on Public Diplomacy and Global Communication.

(2012). Article: Radio Farda, VOA Morning Programs Make The Leap To Television. BBG .

(2011). Interview: Social Media, New State TV Change Face of International Broadcasting. RFERL.

(2011). Article: A New Voice of America For the Age of Twitter. New York Times.

(2011). Video: International Broadcasting as Public Diplomacy: the News and National Identity, Part 1. Blinken European Institute & Columbia University.

(2011). Video: International Broadcasting as Public Diplomacy: the News and National Identity, Part 2. Blinken European Institute & Columbia University.

(2011). Article: Waves in the Web: Western state-backed news outfits are struggling to keep their influence in the developing world. The Economist.