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‘Deeds’ Indeed: Examining The Ethos of U.S. Public Diplomacy Policy

Apr 27, 2007


The many justifications for U.S. public diplomacy policy range from the concrete to the abstract. In forums such as this Web site, public diplomacy is described as both a specialized instrument for foreign policy promotion, as well as a symbol of the lofty ideals of promoting international dialogue and cultural understanding. Yet the instrumental aspect of public diplomacy typically boils down to the amplification of United States ethos.

Public diplomacy conveys aspects of U.S. national character that in turn creates opportunities for dialogue, highlights shared cultural heritage, and provides exposure to information about U.S. policy and society. It builds an audience for U.S. ideas and attempts to cultivate some form of identification (the bedrock of soft power). In theory, the U.S. can seem more credible -- and thus, more persuasive -- in its policy agenda if it can manage to elevate its character through public diplomacy. Whether one calls it branding, public diplomacy, or strategic communication -- it remains an instrument of persuasion (peripheral or otherwise).

It's clear that policy actions speak just as loudly as the other voices of public diplomacy. U.S. actions, official policy statements, and political theater leave a communicative imprint on the rest of the world that public diplomacy must struggle to "frame." One way to do this is to directly assert the ethos of the United States through word and action. Undersecretary of State Karen Hughes's recent rhetoric has focused on the actions taken by the United States to display a kind of moral authority. On March 15, 2007, Karen Hughes announced the recent focus of her department as emphasizing:

"The diplomacy of deeds" -- the concrete ways in which America is working to provide more education programs of all kinds, teaching women to read and young people to speak English…America is providing food and better health care across the world, from the Palestinian territories to Africa…and more job opportunities so young people and all people can aspire to better lives. Together, we must work to provide our young people with reasons to live rather than reasons to die.

John Brown recently noted that Hughes's State Department Web site stated that it was her job to "provide the moral basis for U.S. leadership in the world." Yet, he also argued that this "diplomacy of deeds," (a somewhat ironic reference to the “propaganda of deed” practiced by 19th century European anarcho-terrorists) is profoundly purposive, and that the moral symbols embodied by the generous acts are subverted by the sense that her reminders are but a means to an ends.

But ethotic arguments are nevertheless a part of effective persuasion. One need only look to the efforts by Hezbollah during and after the Lebanon war in 2006 to emphasize their role in providing emergency relief and support to the displaced and injured. The same could be said for Hamas, as much of its political fortunes rest on the perception amongst the Palestinians that they are supposedly uncorrupt. So yes, ethos matters, especially in foreign audiences critical to U.S. national security interests.

Of course there’s always been some disagreement on how one orator (let alone a nation) can promote its own ethos. The inherent tension goes all the way back to the classical Greek rhetoricians. Can one establish one’s ethos in communication, or must it come from action? Aristotle argued that ethos is “created [or formed] by the speech itself, and not left to depend upon an antecedent impression [of] the speaker.” Yet for Hughes, the artistic proof she promotes is dependent on using examples that are a slice of the total experiences of her target audience. Context matters. Another Greek, Isocrates, saw that character was based on actions as well. He offered instruction in good behaviors (actions) that would augment the ethos of the speaker. This helped to create what Aristotle called a good “antecedent impression” in the minds of the audience.

So what does this mean for the “moral authority" of the United States, and how does the U.S. -- at this point -- perform the kind of ethos it wants to convey? How can U.S. positive actions be framed in such a way that audiences can be made aware of them, without the sense that the U.S. is vaunting these for strategic purposes?

The contrasts remain striking. On April 25, Laura Bush told Anne Curry on NBC's Today Show that she wanted the American people to know that "no one suffers more than their president and I do" on the issue of Iraq. Here, she portrays the president as a deeply thoughtful and concerned leader, fully conscious of the terrible consequences of the war. Granted, this statement was aimed at a domestic audience, but was likely viewed across global media channels. And yet, a recent poll conducted by the Program on International Policy Attitudes showed a remarkable consensus across Muslim countries that the United States was definitely engaged in a war with Islam.

Another multi-national poll conducted by the same organization found significant percentages in a number of countries believing that the U.S. was an irresponsible actor that could not be trusted very much or at all. Of the seven countries polled on whether the United States is willing to consider other interests in its policies, five “believe the United States does not take their interests into account when making foreign policy decisions.” These are not simply policy judgments reflected in the polls. They are statements about the fundamental motives and character of the United States.

If the "job" of public diplomacy is to promote the "moral leadership" of the United States, it is clear that U.S. public diplomacy has significant challenges ahead. I’m not sure whether a more “coordinated” strategy is necessary (as Joseph Nye recently argued), or maybe a less “obvious” approach to U.S. communications. In any case, ethos remains a resource for U.S. international arguments, and yet it’s a resource that is clearly diminished. I am not sure what "deeds" or "words" could have a reparative effect in the short term. Simply stating intentions and motives in such an environment may not only fall on deaf ears, but might also further entrench the sense that the U.S. is disingenuous. Not exactly the foundation for a strong moral leadership.


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Hi Graig,

Hi Graig,

Read you article with great interest.

As I mentioned in my Common Dreams article on Hughes's "diplomacy of deeds" (DD), it is, perhaps, the most "original" element she has introduced into American public diplomacy during her tenure. Her other "new initiatives" (ever heard of an "old initiative"?) are not terribly new -- I have in mind her Office’s information, educational, and cultural programs, which have in one form or another existed at least since the Cold War. To be sure, she has a few State Department employees now communicating to the Arab world via blogging, but this initiative has very modest proportions indeed.

Hughes's DD has several problems from a public diplomacy perspective:

1) Whatever "deeds" Ms. Hughes, the administration's spin-stress, carries out (e.g., giving out sewing machines in the Philippines as she did not long ago), they pale in significance to the other overseas deeds -- so many of them horrendous -- for which the Bush administration must be held accountable, ranging from an unjustified invasion of a country that posed no direct threat to the U.S. to a recent military "surge" in Baghdad that brings chaos and murder rather than reconciliation. These deeds (among others, including Abu Ghraib, Guantanamo, CIA “extraordinary renditions”) have been viewed abroad with great criticism if not repulsion and continue to tarnish America's battered image. Indeed, how is it not possible for foreigners not to see Ms. Hughes’s “deeds” as saccharine efforts to cover up the bloody, senseless deeds of US foreign policy under George W. Bush? As one commentator to the Mountain Runner blog noted, “Whatever the ‘diplomacy of deeds’ is, the reality of deeds counts for more.”

(2) If, in the broadest sense, the purpose of traditional diplomacy is negotiations, the purpose of public diplomacy (meant to enrich and supplement traditional diplomacy) is communications. Now, Ms. Hughes's DD has, in my view, little to do with communications. Rather, it is a form of imposition (granted, harmless but somewhat condescending) on suffering foreign "target audiences." Give them something -- no need to talk with them – and they’ll be so grateful they’ll love us forever. I have of course no objections to assisting other countries or charitable acts by the public or private sector, but is that really the role of public diplomacy?

(3) The kind of publicity Ms. Hughes uses to hype her DD constantly borders on the superficial and vulgar, thereby not particularly helping America's image. Take two recent examples, which I pointed out in my "Public Diplomacy Press and Blog Review":

a) ANGELINA JOLIE CALLS FOR MORE FUNDING FOR ORPHANS – POSTED BY COURTNEY77 (YOUR CELEBRITY SOURCE, APRIL 26): Angelina Jolie has adopted three children from different countries, and now she's taken her advocacy global. On Thursday, Jolie and GAC executive director Jennifer Delaney met with top leaders at the State Department, including Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs Dina Powell and Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Karen Hughes. "It went very well," Delaney tells PEOPLE. "We talked about how there is such a growing need to help children around the world. We talked a great deal about universal education and orphans and vulnerable children, so I do think there's some receptiveness there to this issue."

b) KYLE KORVER PARTICIPATES IN MALARIA AWARENESS DAY – (NBA.COM, APRIL 27): Philadelphia 76ers Forward Kyle Korver, NBA Legend Buck Williams, former Washington Wizard Gheorghe Muresan, Washington Mystics’ guard Nikki Blue and Mystics GM Linda Hargrove joined First Lady Laura Bush for Malaria Awareness Day on April 25 in Washington, DC. The event, with Mrs. Bush, Karen Hughes -- Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs -- and Admiral Timothy Ziemer, took place at Friendship Public Charter School with the players participating in a basketball shooting contest with the kids from the school.

This kind of DD smacks of the commercial, advertising, and Hollywood/NBA hype. It does not, in my view, provide "moral leadership" (and I could go on and on on why Ms. Hughes -- or American public diplomacy itself -- should be involved in "moral leadership" in the first place.)

4. Finally, and as the above examples suggest, I strongly suspect that Hughes's DD, while it pays lip service to foreign audiences, is really directed at American voters. It is meant to reassure us of how kind and good we Americans are at a time when even the most America-centered denizens of the US biosphere are finally realizing that as a result of the President's policies the United States is more unpopular overseas than perhaps at any other time in our nation's history. Karen is telling us that we (like her, under her “moral leadership”) are a good and compassionate people through her DD. Well, granted, that may be true to some persons (especially Ms. Hughes herself), but what does it have to do with public diplomacy or effectively communicating America’s case overseas?

Again, thanks for raising the issue of Hughes's "diplomacy of deeds," which, in my modest opinion, has not been sufficiently (or critically) examined in the mainstream media. As a historian, I would suggest that DD could be Hughes’s very minor contribution to US public diplomacy -- if, given its insignificance, it is remembered at all.

As an English consultant to a

As an English consultant to a significant corporation in the Far East I often find the matter of learning from the client markedly beneficial, even to the point that my English seems benefit more than I have theirs.
One definition of propaganda that came from a marketing executive is introduced by her question "What is the difference between propaganda and advice?" This seems to be a good or effective question and the understanding of advice can easily be made to incorporate a 'diplomacy of deeds' as well as written or spoken words of advice.
Other members of the company have provided a useful answer in "Propaganda is intended to benefit the source while advice is intended to benefit the receiver."
Obviously Hughes will claim her actions are the latter but if so the overwhelming balance of evidence indicates it is very difficult for her to avoid the accusation of absurdity.
This is a significant matter (namely of greed) in that it challenges a fundamantal premise of a large number of Americans as well as many other people in the world of politics and business.


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